Monday, June 15, 2020
Compare And Contrast Two Films (Movie Review Sample) Content: NameProfessorInstitution14 October 2013Compare and Contrast Two MoviesIn the movie, The Terrorizers', the plot has its focus on the unstable relationships of three different couples. There is the young male photographer and his girlfriend, a delinquent Eurasian girl Wang her boyfriend, a doctor, and his wife. The photographer is obsessed with his hobby such that he forgets his girlfriend in an attempt to chase after Wang An after incidentally snapping a picture of her escaping a crime scene. Wang collaborates with her boyfriend to commit a number of conspiracy frauds on random people including the doctor Li Lizhong and his wife Zhu Youfeng a novelist. The two are struggling to maintain their relationship amidst re-unions with past lovers and attempts to manage their jobs. Set in Taipei, the three interwoven threads of relationships portray life in the modern city life with its expectations and realities.Yet another portmanteau film set in Taiwan City is The Sandwich Man', made during the 1980s that gives a glimpse of the economic hardships during the 60s. Full of Taiwanese dialogues, it is about Horace Quilby who in an attempt to feed his family takes on a job as a sandwich-board advertising man. As a walking billboard, he gets to tour London and its many streets and in the process meets many outrageous and interesting characters who leave an impact in his life. Some of them include two salesmen who are in the business of selling pressure cookers that are unsafe and eventually have to face up to the consequences of their acts. There is also squatter family going through a lot of suffering but in the end is entertained with jubilation when an involvement in a road accident promises them compensation payment.A recurrent theme in The Terrorizers' is absenteeism, the continuous absence of things. It is evident from the movie that a concurrent message of the absence of fathers, politically and socially, is illustrated throughout the script. Politic ally there is the absence of leaders. The photographer also develops the theme in a number of ways, he in the first place desserts his family and girlfriend as his job engulfs his time and devotion. He similarly turns the apartment into a darkroom hence denying him the time reality as he creates his own world. A teenage girl whom he accommodates temporarily at a particular point asks him how he is able to differentiate between day and night. The movie gives a brief moment of revelation when there is a differentiation between darkness and light. The terrorizers' is able to capture the logic and meaning of the dream world through the protagonists who are but individuals suspended in time. The relationships featured are also used to further illustrate the desperate situation in the intertwined lives. The doctor is preoccupied with his promotion and job and seems to have forgotten all about the wife who longs for a more romantic connection with her husband. This misunderstanding dri ves them to infidelity. Wang's father is similarly a protagonist of the theme of absenteeism as her mother is left to deal with her rebellious daughter and is forced to lock her up in the house.This comedy, The Sandwich man' on the other hand explores a set of themes including irony, stereotypes, and freedom. Horace has the time to go around the city as he explores all of its famous sights and ways. Most of the characters are stereotypes and are all fixed on certain images or places. It is only Horace who seems to be exempted from the bunch as he is able to mingle and understand the people. Michael is evidently one of the less famous individuals and very little of the absurd form of aesthetics is explored. The comedy in the film is however more of an anthology of comedy than of pure comedy. Every new character that Horace meets represents different comedy types since there is farce, verbal encount...
Sunday, May 17, 2020
A Committed Man Louis Weldon, a man with good standards, has done a lot for other people within the community. He attends the Alcoholic Anonymous meetings for recovering alcoholic and drug addicts. Twelve years of sobriety is what Mr. Louis has to show for the ones that are in need of his help. The A.A. meetings are where a lot of the members come to him for help or look up to him as a mentor. Mr. Louis tries to lead people in the right direction after they have reached the darkest place in their life. Many people come to him because he is a model that things will get better, and they can overcome their addiction. Ã¢â¬Å"There are not any leaders in A.A., IÃ¢â¬â¢m a servant for the peopleÃ¢â¬ , he says. As a witness, he is a prime example of a great leader. I had the wonderful pleasure of interviewing Mr. Louis about his huge role within the community. He loved talking about helping others and everything he will do to see a person happy and doing well. We had the interview inside the A.A. house, two hours before the meeting started, with no one else around. To get things started, Mr. Louis commented that the reason he got involved with the A.A. meetings is because, Ã¢â¬Å"I am an alcoholic and a drug addict, and I joined the program to get help myself.Ã¢â¬ When asked, Ã¢â¬Å"What are the challenges of being a leader in the Alcoholics Anonymous meetings?Ã¢â¬ He made it very clear that Ã¢â¬Å"There are no leaders in A.A., only trusted servants.Ã¢â¬ Mr. Louis also states, Ã¢â¬Å"The biggest challenge is getting the messageShow MoreRelatedWalter White Was A Good Man By American Society s Standards940 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesposted a caricature that depicted a cop speaking with an inmate saying Ã¢â¬Å"I am neither a good cop nor a bad cop, Jerome. Like yourself, I am a complex amalgam of positive and negative personality traits that emerge or not, depending on the circumstancesÃ¢â¬ (Stevens, 2007). Being diagnosed with incurable cancer, Walter White began his metamorp hosis from an outstanding citizen into an egotistical drug lord. He was a good man who was led to commit immoral choices due to the situation he was put in. ThroughoutRead MoreAristotle s Theory Of Moral Virtue915 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesto lack being inherently good or bad, even sadness can be good given that you act sad for the proper reasons in response to the proper conditions. I definitely agree that in most cases, what is virtuous is the mean between two vices and determined by the conditions underlying the situation. This is because the each action can be good or bad, and when a situation involves multiple conditions, it produces a range of mixtures of actions to be taken; some actions being more good or bad then others. ForRead MoreAristotle s Theory Of Morality1673 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages1094b). On an individual basis, the distinct human function has no significant moral role. However, when practicality is stressed over theory, the moral significance of that distinct function becomes more integral. AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s account of the highest good in Book I of Nichomachean Ethics concerns the the general desire for happiness: it serves as a guide for a political leader, not a layout for individual morality. Thus, the distinct human capacity is morally significant insofar as it acts though politicsRead MoreAyn Rands Atlas Shrugged : John Galts Strike Of The Mind1277 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe notion that Ã¢â¬Å"knowledge is impossible to manÃ¢â¬ (133). They have shunned the mind as useless, and established a collectivist society that caters to mindlessness through the exploitation of the mind. These ideals are the antithesis to RandÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophy, Objectivism, which is developed around the ideology that manÃ¢â¬â¢s mind is the motor that keeps the world turning, and thus, the use of it is the basic standard of morality. John Galt is the epitome of a man who lives and breathes Objectivist ideals, andRead MoreIslamic Worldview Critical Thinking Essay 913 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesQuestion of Origin Ã¢â¬â Similarly to Genesis of the Bible, the Quran offers verses describing creation. Ã¢â¬Å"Surely, your Lord is Allah who created the heavens and the earthÃ¢â¬ ¦ (Yunus 10:3) The Quran also tells us that Allah is the creator of all, including man. There are very few differences between the Islamic and Christian views of Creation, as both views accept that everything was created by the Lord. b. The Question of Identity Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"The Islamic Identity is taken to mean the way of life of the Muslim, aRead MoreThe Federal Reserve Bank and Monetary Values 1295 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesmonetary values. Each seller could make exchange requests based on different things. For example, a starving man could deem grain a commodity if he only manufactures luxury goods. Based on his hunger, the starving man can request to make an exchange of his luxury good with farmers for grain. Given that luxury goods are not a necessity, nor desired by everyone, the farmers can refuse his offer. The man would have to barter with a third party to acquire whatever the farmers were willing to make an exchangeRead MoreAnalysis Of Phillipe Benetons Equality By Default1062 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesrejection of the good life as the end of political actionÃ¢â¬ (7). In simple terms, equality by default is based on the idea that two things cannot possibly be anything other than equal. Furthermore, it is the rejection of not only the idea of the good life, but also of the idea of any good through which to compare things. The argument for substantial equality is based on merit and a claim of some good which stems from a standard of excellence. This standard makes differentiation between good and bad easyRead MoreJustice In Crime And Punishment, By Fyodor Dostoevsky1262 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Unanswered Questions In Crime and Punishment, Fyodor Dostoevsky discusses justice, questioning who or what determines this ideal. Primarily, he focuses on a man named Raskolnikov, who murders two women and then wrestles with his motives. As RaskolnikovÃ¢â¬â¢s hopeless outlook drives him to madness, his friend Sonia reveals an alternative view of justice, which allows for redemption. Through analyzing his characterÃ¢â¬â¢s viewpoints, Dostoevsky never explicitly defines justice; instead, he exposes hisRead MoreArgument For The Existence Of Moral Law1134 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesbecause they have different standards, but because they believe someone is in violation of their shared standard. This is the moral law that permeates all cultures and all time periods. All groups have similar standards of right and wrong. Lewis then begins the next chapter by examining objections to his moral law argument. Some say that moral law is just herd instinct. However, Lewis says that when you see a man drowning youÃ¢â¬â¢re desire that you ought to help the man is different than mere instinctRead MoreThe Tradgedy of Okonkwo849 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesfamily is in the Ibo culture. What it means to be a man in the Ibo culture is also a major theme in this book. Change is one of the biggest themes in this book. Okonkwo goes through a lot of changes for the worse. One example of a change for Okonkwo is when he was exiled for seven years. Okonkwo was exiled because his gun exploded and it shot a boy right in the heart. It was the crime against the earth goddess to kill a clansman, and a man who committed it must flee from the land. (P.124)
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Assume you have just been hired as a business manager of PizzaPalace, a regional pizza restaurant chain. The company s EBIT was $50 million last year and is not expected to grow. The firm is currently financed with all equity, and it has 10 million shares outstanding. When you took your corporate finance course, your instructor stated that most firms owners would be financially better off if the firms used some debt. When you suggested this to your new boss, he encouraged you to pursue the idea. As a first step, assume that you obtained from the firm s investment banker the followingÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦(1) Construct partial income statements, which start with EBIT, for the two firms. Firm U Firm L Assets $20,000 $20,000 Equity $20,000 $10,000 EBIT $ 3,000 $ 3,000 INT (12%) 0 1,200 EBT $ 3,000 $ 1,800 Taxes (40%) 1,200 720 NI $ 1,800 $ 1,080 (2) Now calculate ROE for both firms. Firm U Firm L BEP 15.0% 15.0% ROI 9.0% 11.4% ROE 9.0% 10.8% TIE 2.5 (3) What does this example illustrate about the impact of financial leverage on ROE? Firm L has higher expected ROI because of the tax savings effect. Firm L also has the higher expected ROE resulted in part from the tax savings. The use of financial leverage has increased the expected profitability to shareholders. Stock is riskier if the firm uses debt. The use of debt will increase ROE only if ROA exceeds the after-tax cost of debt. D. Explain the difference between financial risk and business risk. Business risk increases the uncertainty in future EBIT. It depends on business factors such as competition, operating leverage, etc. Financial risk is the additional business risk concentrated on common stockholders when financial leverage is used. It depends on the amount of debt and preferred stock financing. E. What happens to ROE for Firm U and Firm L if EBIT falls to $2,000? What does this imply about the impact of leverage on risk andShow MoreRelatedMini Case - Mckenzie Corporations Capital Budgeting942 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCFEA3230 Advanced Managerial Finance individual assignment: MINI CASE - McKENZIE CORPORATIONS CAPITAL BUDGETING Prepared by :- RUBBIATUN ARDAWIYAH bt ABDUL HAMID CEA 080147 Prepared for:- Profesor Madya Dr. Rubi Binti Ahmad Date of submission :- 25 april 2012 MINI CASE - McKENZIE CORPORATIONS CAPITAL BUDGETING Sam McKenzie is the founder and CEO of McKenzie Restaurants, Inc., a regional company. Sam is considering opening several new restaurantsRead MoreInternational Business Competing in the Global Marketplace 8th Edition Charles W. L. Hill5106 Words Ã |Ã 21 PagesSeries in Finance Alexander/Sharpe/Bailey Geisst Fundamentals of Investments Megginson Investment Banking in the Financial System Andersen Corporate Finance Theory Melvin Global Derivatives: A Strategic Risk Management Perspective Bear/Moldonado-Bear Gitman International Money and Finance Principles of Managerial Finance* Principles of Managerial FinanceÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â Brief Edition* Mishkin/Eakins Financial Markets and Institutions Free Markets, Finance, Ethics,Read MoreFin 516 Mini Case1684 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMini Case: Google Christina Santino FIN 516:Advanced Managerial Finance July 21, 2013 What is the name of the company? What is the industry sector? Google Inc. is a multi-billion dollar company in the informational technology (IT) industry. Google Inc. is one of the leading computer search engines in the world and is continuing to grow as the front runner in their industry. What are the operating risks of the company? Within business, there will always be operational risks toRead MoreHca 270 Ratio Analysis2493 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesAll rights reserved. Course Description This course is designed as an introduction to the terminology, processes, functions, and financial reports commonly encountered in health care operations. This course introduces the concepts of basic managerial financial functions, such as budgeting, reimbursement methods, and the responsibilities of health care financial management. Policies Faculty and students/learners will be held responsible for understanding and adhering to all policies containedRead MoreAdvanced Corporate Finance4303 Words Ã |Ã 18 PagesUniversity of Puget Sound School of Business and Leadership BUS 434 Advanced Corporate Finance Professor Alva Wright Butcher Tues-Thurs 11:00-12:20 McIntyre 107 Spring Semester 2012 Office: McIntyre 111 I Phone: 253-879-3349 FAX: 253-879-3156 Office Hours: T-Th: 1:00-1:50 Wed: 9:30-10:30 And by appointment Note that I am always willing to schedule additional office hours by appointment. I check email frequently, so that is also a goodRead MoreSolution Manual, Test Bank and Instructor Manuals34836 Words Ã |Ã 140 PagesEdition, 2nd Edition_Joyce Fung-Goh B.L., Suriya Binte Shukor, Marie Christine Que Cheong, Fadhlina Samsudin, Tan Shu Hong (SM ) Accounting and Auditing Research Tools and Strategies, 6th Edition_Thomas Weirich,Thomas C. Pearson,Alan Reinstein (SM+Cases and solutions) Accounting and Financial Analysis in the Hospitality Industry_Johnathan Hales,Hubert B. Van Hoof (IM+TB) Accounting Business Reporting for Decision Making, 4th Edition_Jacqueline Birt, Keryn Chalmers, Albie Brooks, Suzy Byrne, JudyRead MoreTows Analysis8613 Words Ã |Ã 35 Pagesso that sufficient attention can be given to the analysis of the current situation. It is assumed that the purpose of the firm has already been established, yet is subject to change after an evaluation of the situation. Inputs People Capital Managerial Skills Technical Skills Goals of Claimants Enterprise Profile Present External Environmen External Treats and Opportunities Evaluation and Strategic Choice Medium Range Planning Forecast of Future Environmen Alternative Strategies Read Morecafes monte bianco case analysis4234 Words Ã |Ã 17 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ MANAGERIAL ACCOUNTING FOR DECISION MAKING AMIS 823 Ã¢â¬â Spring 2008 Course Syllabus INSTRUCTOR: Prakash R. Mulchandani OFFICE HOURS: M/W 3:30-4:30pm, and by appointment OFFICE: 432 Fisher Hall E-MAIL: firstname.lastname@example.org TELEPHONE: (614) 247-6267 FAX: (614) 292-2118 COURSE OUTLINE This course focuses on the strategic nature of management accounting and emphasizes the critical role that information plays in decision-making, strategy execution, and overall enhancement of a firmÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreAn Introduction Of The Soft Drink Industry2157 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesflat or slightly falling. Although this would normally be seen as unfavorable, in this case it has caused Pepsi to hit the drawing board for new ideas and products. Pepsi has designed a smaller portions can size. The calorie content remains the same per unit of beverage, but the can contains a smaller portion sized amount. The soft drink company has seen a 3% increase in sales due specifically to its mini-can products. PepsiCo has also launched a line of craft sodas, using new ingredients, tryingRead MoreAaa Framework5113 Words Ã |Ã 21 Pagescountries or regions.. Ghemawat cites the actions taken by Rupert MurdochÃ¢â¬â¢s News Corporation in the 1990s. By placing its U.S. acquisitions into holdi ng companies in the Cayman Islands, the company could deduct interest payments on the debt used to finance the deals against the profits generated by its newspaper operations in Britain. Through this and other similar actions, it successfully lowered its tax liabilities to an average rate of less than 10%, rather than the statutory 30% to 36% of the three
EFFECTIVE INTERNATIONAL MARKETING IN GLOBALLY FRANCHISING FIRMS. Overview The decision to take a company outside the the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s origin involves careful analysis of risk and benefit factors, consideration and selection of potential markets, planned market entry, and development of market penetration over time. While this can be done through a number of strategies, franchising is a growing means of achieving international presence. DECIDING TO FRANCHISE INTERNATIONALLY With the increase in international franchising and its impact on marketing, a number of studies have been conducted on various related aspects. One first consideration in literature is what leads to the decision to go international, and how this stimulates marketing within the firm. It is first helpful to consider the relationship between parent companies and their subsidiaries, whether franchises, partnerships, or company-owned outlets. Structurally, large multinationals such as McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s and Benetton are Ã¢â¬Å"better viewed as inter-organisational networks than monolithic hierarchies,Ã¢â¬ because each subsidiary can take actions that affect the company as a whole (Birkinshaw 2000, 2). Corporate structure is determined by interplay between parent and subsidiary, with both responding to and driving needed changes in the business environment (Birkinshaw 2000, 4). Sometimes it will be the subsidiary that pursues markets, making a Ã¢â¬Å"proactive and deliberate pursuit of a new business opportunityÃ¢â¬ in order to Ã¢â¬Å"expand its scope of responsibilityÃ¢â¬ (Birkinshaw 2000, 2). Eroglu (1992) studied determinants in firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ decisions to franchise internationally. He found two sets of Ã¢â¬Å"perceptual variables Ã¢â¬â perceived risks and perceived benefits Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ determine a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s decision (19). When the perceived benefits outweighed the perceived risks, the company would proceed with expansion. Cost/benefit analysis in one common method for measuring benefits versus risk, but again, is filtered through the perceptual opinions of decision makers. It is therefore to consider the variables as perceived benefits and perceived risks (Eroglu 1992, 23). In addition to push and pull factors, there are two theories in the study of franchising that explain the decision to move into international locations. Both address one of the most ebated topics in franchising research: why the parent company would want to franchise, when company-owned units provide a higher rate of return (Elango and Fried 1997, 69). Once a business achieves a certain size, it is more profitable to the parent company if wholly owned. For example, a typical franchisee may make a forty percent margin, and pay half of that to the parent company. Ã¢â¬Å"With the right economies of scale, the franchisor could recoup m ore of that profit margin by owning the company outrightÃ¢â¬ (Hoar 2003, 78). The first, resource scarcity theory, contends that companies lack the resources such as capital, local market knowledge, and managerial talent to open international outlets on their own (Altinay 2004, 427). By recruiting local franchisees who supply capital, management, and knowledge of the local market, franchising organisations can achieve internationalisation not otherwise possible (Altinay 2004, 427). The parent company would not be able to expand, particularly on an international level, without the assets offered by the franchisee. This theory is more easily applied to small and medium-sized firms which obviously lack the assets for internationalisation than it is to either McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s or Benetton. Interestingly both organisations do have some company-owned holdings. For McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s part, Ray Kroc once contended he was in the real estate business, not the restaurant business, citing the large passive income generated from the leasing of McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s properties to individual franchisees (Vignali 2001, 97). Agency theory is based on the relationship between the principal party, in this case the parent company, who owns or control a set of economic assets or functions. They delegate work to the agent, in this case the franchisee, who operate on the principalÃ¢â¬â¢s behalf (Doherty and Quinn 1999, 227). The theory stresses the importance of the process of the transfer of information, the problem of information asymmetry, and monitoring costs associated with both (Doherty and Quinn 1999, 224). Jensen and Meckling (1975) explain information asymmetry problems occur because the franchisee has detailed information about franchise operations that are not communicated to the parent company, and this causes division between the aims of the parent company and the franchisee. This is enhanced by the natural tendency for franchisees to operate in their own best interests, even at the expense of the parent company (Altinay 2004, 427). Applying Agency Theory to a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to franchise internationally, the company usually does so on the basis of lower costs and decreased risk. Since salaried managers would be likely to under perform, going with franchisees increases the likelihood of dedicated performance, and therefore reduced monitoring costs (Elango and Fried 1997, 71. Franchises Ã¢â¬Å"provide the parent company advantages such as economies of scale in marketing and production, while providing or entrepreneurial discretion at the unit levelÃ¢â¬ (Elango and Fried 1997, 68). In addition, franchises impact the overall marketing strategy and specific marketing activities of the firm as a whole. Any increase in business activity, such as new outlets or product, should generate additional marketing. In particular, international franchising usually requires adaptation of marketing products to the local cultures. In the case of BenettonÃ¢â¬â¢s social awareness campaigns, marketing product was intended to be used globally, although some areas and retailers found some of the photos disturbing or inappropriate (Barela 2003, 118). While the series certainly raised awareness and sales did increase during the time they were in use, there is contention whether the marketing scheme helped or hurt retailersÃ¢â¬â¢ bottom line in many locations (Barela 2003, 118). This often leads to the company adapting its global marketing strategy and components for a specific geographical region or cultural group (Vignali 2001, 97). MARKET CHOICE Choice of market has also been a subject of much research. Ã¢â¬Å"EachÃ concept and country must be considered separately in relation to a multitude of issues about the market, potential franchisees, legal matters, receptivity to franchising in general, and feasibility of the particular conceptÃ¢â¬ (Maynard 1995, 69). Ã¢â¬Å"In international markets, franchise relations are influenced by the extent to which the overseas franchise system can be transferred into the local market in terms of product acceptance, suitable local presentation and transferable support servicesÃ¢â¬ (Connell 1999, 86). Legal concerns are of particular importance, since they differ so greatly from country to country. For example, there is currently no legislation in the UK that regulates franchising (Hoar 2003, 77). The European Union adopted block exemption for franchises, which protects them from antitrust laws. Ã¢â¬Å"France, Mexico, and Brazil have enacted laws similar to those of the United States, requiring franchisors to provide presale disclosure to prospective franchisees, while Australia and Italy have adopted voluntary codes pertaining to presale disclosure and other requirementsÃ¢â¬ (Maynard 1995, 71). Atlinay (2004), citing a number of research studies, determined that several organisational determinants directly impact market choice. Organisation size greatly determines the number of franchises that can be supported, as each must be supplied with product and support (Altinay 2004, 429). Operating and international experience have both been shown to positively effect the decision to franchise. In general, the greater the experience of decision-makers, particularly if they have lived or worked abroad successfully, the greater likelihood they will pursue markets beyond current operations. Altinay 2004, 429). Company leaders may also recognise that competitive pressures in current markets make growth and expansion there unlikely or prohibitively expensive. Similarly, the external environment of the markets under consideration may make them more or less attractive to potential investors (Altinay 2004, 429). For example, some governments have highly restrictive business laws, while oth ers provide little or no protection for franchisers. The former makes both starting and doing business difficult, while the latter puts the franchiser at risk. A supposed franchisee could simply take the business model or proprietary systems and go out on their own, cutting the franchiser out of their rightful position in the relationship. Other researchers have concluded geographical and cultural proximity are major determinants of market choice (Alon and McKee 1999, 76-77). Specifically, organisations will choose markets based on their physical closeness or cultural similarities to the head office. For example, the areas most likely to begin franchises of UK businesses are Ireland and France, while US franchisers first target Canada and Mexico (Alexander and Doherty 2003, 15). The logistical issues of transporting people and product are greatly reduced when franchises expand into nearby countries, rather than ones far removed. After geographically immediate countries, the next areas targeted for franchise are those with similar cultures to the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s host country (Alexander and Doherty 2003, 15). For example, UK retailers franchising in the US, Canada, or Australia can expect relatively similar customer groups, requiring little adaptation of product or marketing materials. Training, advertising, and other organisation material can remain in English, with no need for ranslation or significant cultural variations (Alexander and Doherty 2003, 16). In practice, some franchisers leave market choice almost entirely up to the initiation of franchisees, while others are more proactive. In a best-case scenario, both the subsidiary and parent company evaluate the local market, the internal market, and the global market when considering possible market s (Birkinshaw 2000, 9). For example, McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s both requires market justification from franchisees and carefully evaluates each new market opportunity before allowing franchisees to proceed (Vignali 2001, 97). Market approval is heavily dependent on resource allocation, that is, there must be sufficient resources available and available at that location for the market choice to go forward (Birkinshaw 2000, 45). MARKET ENTRY Various factors have been found to contribute to the method, location, and timing of market entry. First, there are a number of different methods used in international expansion and franchising. Direct franchising, joint ventures, and master franchising are all common. In direct franchising, the parent company seeks out potential franchisees in market areas it has selected for development (Maynard 1995, 66). While it requires greater involvement by the parent company, it also allows the organisation to be more selective in franchisee choice and therefore have more control over the foreign operation (Maynard 1995, 68). Franchisees may be solicited through newspapers or similar media outlets, but are more commonly sought through recommendations of other successful franchisees (Noren 2001, 62). Sometimes the parent company actually joins with a local firm to move into a foreign market. This can be through acquisition or merger, but is more commonly accomplished through a joint venture. This is when the companies join forces to create a distinct third company owned by both partner firmsÃ¢â¬ (Maynard 1995, 66). Ã¢â¬Å"Joint ventures create more-cumber-some tax and financial issues than the other two approaches, but they have other advantages, which vary depending on the partnership arrangementÃ¢â¬ (Maynard 1995, 68). The created company then sometimes initiates or supervises franchise relations within its country or geographical region, and sometimes oversees company-owned units (Maynard 1995, 68). Some initiatives put forth by franchisees involve operations within the company. The most critical facilitator of internal market initiatives is the credibility of the subsidiary in the eyes of the parent companyÃ¢â¬ (Birkinshaw 2000, 26). Such initiatives are geared towards rationalising and reconfiguring the systems within the parent company and increasing the efficiency of resource use, rather than improving external variables or increasing the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s re source base (Birkinshaw 2000, 27-28). Overall, direct and master franchising are the most commonly used methods for market entry by UK firms. They allow firms of various sizes, from small chains to large multinationals, to successfully internationalise. Companies can both grow globally and Ã¢â¬Å"reap the benefits of size without sacrificing the benefits of local presenceÃ¢â¬ (Birkinshaw 2000, 1). The British Franchise Association (BFA) reports nearly seven hundred franchise systems are currently operational in the UK, accounting for more than 30,000 business units (Hoar 2003, 77). These franchises employ 330,000 people, and represented a total turnover of ? 9. 5 billion in 2002 (Hoar 2003, 77). While British firms have been slow to franchise overseas, particularly compared to companies from the US and Japan, they are rapidly catching up. Over one-third of British retailers with operations outside the country employ franchising to some degree (Doherty and Quinn 1999, 225). This number increases with the number of countries in which a particular firm has operations (Hoar 2003, 77). Factors driving franchisings international expansion Ã¢â¬Å"include heightened awareness of global markets, relaxation of trade barriers, saturation of some existing domestic markets, increasing prosperity and demand for consumer goods in many regions overseas, and increasing ease of doing business internationally because of improved communications and transportation systemsÃ¢â¬ (Maynard 1995, 66). Both McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s and Benetton have been impacted by at least three of these variables. DEVELOPING THE LOCAL MARKET Finally, entrepreneurs exhibit various strategies to develop the local market, even if they do so as agents or franchisees of a global firm. The traditional role of a subsidiary or franchisee is to adapt the parent companyÃ¢â¬â¢s product to local tastes, Ã¢â¬Å"then act as a Ã¢â¬Ëglobal scanner,Ã¢â¬â¢ sending signals about changing demands back to the head officeÃ¢â¬ (Birkinshaw 2000, 21). Examples of this would be McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s menu changes, often suggested or proposed by local franchisees, and the use of Ronald McDonald as a spokesman, which was first initiated by local franchisees (Anon 2003, 16). It is imperative, therefore, that large organisations, particularly those that franchise, create systems and structural contexts in which local entrepreneurial activity is both encouraged and controlled (Birkinshaw 2000, 31). If no such structure exists, franchisees will often act as free agents, making decisions and taking actions Ã¢â¬Å"that they believe are in the best interests of the corporation as a whole,Ã¢â¬ whether or not these conform to the expressed desires of the parent company (Birkinshaw 2000, 2). Research indicates that four factors enhance initiative at the subsidiary or franchise level:Ã autonomy, resources, integration and communication (Birkinshaw 2000, 31). High levels of autonomy and resources enhance local and global initiative, but detract from internal initiative. High levels of integration and communication enhance internal initiative, but detract from local and global initiative (Birkinshaw 2000, 31). Ã¢â¬Å"Local market initiatives are facilitated most effectively through a moderate level of autonomy in the subsidiary coupled with a fairly strong relationship with the parent companyÃ¢â¬ (Birkinshaw 2000, 23). In terms of marketing, local franchises have valuable input needed by the marketing teams at the corporate office, and should be respected for both their ideas and their first-hand knowledge of whether something is working. If this does not occur, the company will suffer from information asymmetry problems, as previously discussed under agency theory (Doherty and Quinn 1999, 224). When McDonalds decided to use famous athletes in its promotional materials, ads, and television commercials several years ago, they queried local franchisees for suggestions. As a result, the company was able to choose sports figures recognised in each market area, rather than one internationally known athlete, such as a Tiger Woods, who might have less impact in local markets (Vignali 2001, 97). A basketball star was featured in ads in the United States, a footballer in the UK, and so forth. This allowed McDonalds to project a locally appropriate image through its marketing campaign and further position align local franchises as part of the community, rather than as a foreign restaurant (Vignali 2001, 97). The company was able to do this because they had previously established systems by which ideas and input could be communicated back and forth between franchisees and the corporate headquarters (Vignali 2001, 97). Developing market requires initiating or building the demand of the public for a product, and positioning and pricing the product where it is available to meet such public demand (Johnson and Scholes 2002, 370). The entrepreneur franchisee, therefore, has several strategies available. He or she can make suggestions to the corporate office. These are more likely to be well received if backed by solid market data, particularly data not available to headquarters. The entrepreneur can produce his or her own marketing scheme, if not prohibited from doing so by headquarters. He or she can become highly active in community activities and use the franchise or its products for market development. In the case of Benetton, local retailers could, for example, become involved with groups addressing world hunger. Whatever the strategy, it must result in an increased affinity for the consumer towards the product, brand or retailer, and a corresponding increase in purchasing. REFERENCES Alexander, N. , Doherty, A. M. 2003. International Market Entry:Ã Management competencies and environmental influences. European Retail Digest, issue 42, pp. 14-19. Alon, H. McKee, D. 1999. Towards a macro environmental model of international franchising. Multinational Business Review, Spring 1999, pp. 76-82. Altinay, L. 2004. Implementing international franchising:Ã the role of intrapreneurship. International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 426-443. Anon 2003. Celebrating 50 Years:Ã KrocÃ¢â¬â¢s vision transforms burger drive-in into fast-foo d empire. NationÃ¢â¬â¢s Restaurant News, July 2003, pp. 8-19, 122-123. Anon 2003a. Diversity in Franchising:Ã McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s strives to mirror its communities. NationÃ¢â¬â¢s Restaurant News, July 2003, pp. 6-99. Anon 2001. Investors brave tough franchising law to bring in burgers, beer and sushi. Business Eastern Europe, August 27, 2001, p. 5. Barela, M. 2003. United Colors of Benetton Ã¢â¬â From Sweaters to Success:Ã An Examination of the Triumphs and Controversies of a Multinational Clothing Company. Journal of International Marketing, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 113-128. Barron, J. , Hollingshead, J. 2004. Brand globally, market locally. Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 9-15. Birkinshaw, J. 2000. Entrepreneurship in the Global Firm. Sage, London. Burt, S. 1995. Retail internationalization: evolution of theory and practice. In International Retailing: Trends and Strategies, McGoldrick, P. J. , Davies, G. (eds), London: Pitman, pp. 51Ã¢â¬â73. Connell, J. 1999. Diversity in large firm international franchise strategy. Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 86-95. Doherty, A. M. , Quinn, B. 1999. International retail franchising:Ã an agency theory perspective. International Journal of Retail Distribution Management, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 224-236. Elango, B. , Fried, V. 1997. Franchising Research:Ã A Literature Review and Synthesis. Journal of Small Business Management, July 1997, pp. 68-81. Eroglu, S. 1992. The Internationalization Process of Franchise Systems:Ã A Conceptual Model. International Marketing Review, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 19-30. Hoar, R. , 2003. How to play the franchise system and win. Management Today, June 2003, pp. 76-79. Huszagh, S. , Huszagh, F. , McIntyre, F. 1992. International Franchising in the Context of Competitive Strategy and the Theory of the Firm. International Marketing Review, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 5-18. Ivey, J. 2002. Benetton Gambles on Colour of the Future. Corporate Finance, June 2002, pp. 13-15.
Monday, April 13, 2020
Tips For Using College Diversity Essay SamplesWriting a college diversity essay is one of the most important parts of your college career, and with great diversity comes great responsibility. If you have a very diverse student body in a college, it is important that you are willing to write diversity articles as well as talk about and understand the differences between your campus culture and other college cultures.Diversity does not only apply to race and sex, but also to sexual orientation and religion. You should also be aware that the number of people of different backgrounds and religions on a college campus can vary wildly. In other words, there are going to be situations where students will be afraid to come forward because they do not want to be hurt by the administrators of their school.When you are writing a diversity article, you need to be careful to remember that it is not you who are the problem. As with any other article, it is the students who are the ones who are lik ely to be hurt by what you write. So you should remember that you can help them out and show them the support they need by being honest about your fears and anxieties.Remember to be professional at all times while writing an essay. It is OK to ask your students questions, but be cautious. You do not want to be accused of being overly friendly or too intrusive in the process. Also be careful to understand that this kind of essay is not your best opportunity to practice your writing skills, and that you should make it a point to write your essays when you are writing for a personal essay, not when you are writing a general essay about diversity in colleges.You will be surprised how effective your ideas about diversity are. A good essay will give you ideas and perspectives from individuals who you may not otherwise have thought of. Just remember that your real audience will be those students who will be reading the piece.Diversity essay samples are often the way that you can go about g etting these perspectives. It may be helpful to look at a few different examples before you decide which one will best fit your needs. One thing to keep in mind is that you should find a diversity essay sample that will be appropriate for your class size and that will not be too academically oriented.You might even consider including the essay samples as part of your syllabus. This way you can include the essay samples as a part of your teaching material as well as the general diversity in colleges discussion that you have already been doing in your classes. The advantage of having the diversity in college essay samples included as part of your syllabus is that your students will know that they can look up diversity in colleges at any time and they will feel that it is a part of their syllabus.Essays, like anything else, should be approached in a constructive way. It should be used to make connections and learn more about the subject matter. Because writing diversity essays is such a serious topic, it is important that you write it using the proper tips and techniques.
Sunday, April 5, 2020
What Everybody Is Saying About Gender Roles Essay Samples Is Wrong and Why Gender Roles Essay Samples - the Conspiracy Other people think that gender roles can't ever be abolished due to the biological differences between women and men, and that traditional gender behaviors are just in our nature. The essay has applied sociological imagination in this issue and established that it's a self related social aspect. Instead, gender ought to be thought of as behaviors and individual identifications which exist along a spectrum. Therefore, it should not be confined to the sex of an individual, because gender is not actually a biological occurrence. So it's very important to society to appear past gender roles and inspect the people involved. Many distinct sociologists have developed various heights of theories. For a number of decades, our society was governed by several gender roles. The authors warn the reader if we don't acknowledge the new gender roles, society will nonetheless have precisely the same mentality from fifty years back and each gender won't advance. It is very important to link sociological explanation of gender with different disciplines like sexuality in order to comprehend the standard concepts of gender. By comparison, object-relations theorists concentrate on the consequences of socialization on gender development. Secondary, the idea of androgyny arrives to the fore. As stated by the radical reversal of society, the notion of the gender role becomes changed. Modern Japanese gender roles took on an odd mixture of American views and conventional views in this moment. Know the type of essay that you're writing. Gender vs. Sex There has ever been a significant amount of confusion about the differences between sex and gender. Sample of an excellent personal essay. Facts, Fiction and Gender Roles Essay Samples Girls in anime make an immense deal out of making lunch for their preferred guy because it's a wifely thing. The media which contain many distinctive images of women and men along with many messages about women and men have an important effect on the feeling of identity. As a consequence, women were not permitted to learn professional abilities, such as being a guild, an interrogator, a physician or another profession. For instance, in the conventional society, women and men were expected to dress in a particular way due to their gender roles. If you're viewed as female, you're trying to entice men. Men are supposed to work for a living while women are anticipated to stay home and keep the house and look after the kids. Additionally, fulfils his promise created with the beast to go back to his castle even after knowing it would be a danger because of his life. Some might alter the way that they present themselves. In the job place however it's the women on the receiving end in case of deviation. The back bar guys are all types of kinky that manner. The Argument About Gender Roles Essay Samples Gender isn't an easy conversation to get, it makes people uncomfortable. Gender roles influence women and men in practically every facet of life. They have an impact on how and whether men and women have access to essential resources such as education, information, disposable income, and health services. Gender roles and stereotypes affect women and men in different ways. Women were expected to stay at home, obtaining no formal employment, to manage the house, and carry out all of the household duties. They have to deal with making less than men in wages and a difficult time advancing to the highest positions within a company. They are needed to actively work. They were most likely to know how to do domestic duties compared to men.
Wednesday, March 11, 2020
Scholarship Essay Samples For College StudentsThe internet is full of essay samples for college students, all with excellent tips and advice. However, the fact is that you can't always trust all these to be accurate and up to date. There are a lot of writers out there who will take an assignment, put it on their blog, and then just leave it to the reader to do the rest.I'm sure you've seen lots of scholarship essay samples for college students online, and you've probably even copied some of them yourself. You can always go back and edit your own work after you've already submitted it, but you should always have a backup plan in case you have a question or need help fixing something. Here are some tips on where to find these great essays.The first place to start looking is at your college or educational institution. At some point most people will take an essay on a class project, but it's good to see what other assignments they've actually gotten for students to work on.Another place to look is online, as there are many schools and non-profit organizations that will post these forms for free. Take advantage of these, and you'll usually find some useful tips and advice to make the process easier.One more great place to get help on scholarship essay samples for college students is your local library. There is a lot of free literature on the subject, and it is a great place to find out more about the process.If you can't find scholarship essay samples for college students anywhere else, there is another alternative - try writing them yourself. Many students use their current experiences to write papers and the less you do, the better.The great thing about this approach is that the lessons you learn from the experience apply to future essays. It is a good idea to follow the steps above in order to learn the basic process, and once you've written your first draft, you can then move onto the more difficult tasks of editing and rewriting.The truth is that almost any si te that offers free essays will offer some type of advice and guidelines for you to follow when writing your essay. Sometimes it may take a little work to get the words just right, but if you keep going and keep in mind the tips mentioned above, you will be well on your way to creating the perfect essay for your school.